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Therapeutic Effect of Ecklonia cava Extract in Letrozole-Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rats
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinal disorder that afflicts mainly women of childbearing age. The symptoms of PCOS are irregular menstrual cycles, weight gain, subfertility and infertility. However, because the etiology is unclear, management and treatment methods for PCOS are not well established. Recently, natural substances have been used for PCOS therapy. Ecklonia cava (E. cava) is a well-known natural substance that attenuates the effects of inflammation, allergies, and cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of E. cava extract in rats with PCOS. When rats with letrozole-induced PCOS were exposed to the E. cava extract, the regular estrus cycle was restored, similar to that in placebo rats. Hormone levels, including the levels of testosterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), were restored to their normal states. Histological analysis revealed that the polycystic ovary symptoms were significantly decreased in the E. cava-treated rats and were comparable to those of normal ovaries. At the transcriptional and translational levels, Ar, and Esr2 levels were markedly increased in the E. cava-treated rats with PCOS compared with the rats with letrozole-induced PCOS. These results suggest that the E. cava extract inhibits the symptoms of PCOS by restoring imbalanced hormonal levels and irregular ovarian cycles in letrozole-induced female rats.buy letrozole powder
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinal disorder that afflicts women of childbearing age. The common symptoms of PCOS include irregular menstrual cycles, weight gain, subfertility, and infertility (Sirmans and Pate, 2013). The symptoms also include lack of ovulation, high androgen levels and high numbers of ovarian cysts. Two of the above three parameters are used to diagnose PCOS in women (Rosenfield and Ehrmann, 2016). Approximately three-quarters of PCOS patients have high androgen levels, and this hyperandrogenism is thought to be genetically acquired and an effect of the environment on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (Codner and Escobar-Morreale, 2007).
A deficiency in aromatase activity is one of the intraovarian disturbances in steroidogenesis that is thought to trigger ovarian failure, such as in PCOS. Because aromatase catalyzes the rate-determining step during the biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens, decreased activity of this enzyme could be expected to result in hormonal imbalance, circulating hyperandrogenism and intraovarian androgen excess, resulting in polycystic ovaries (Kafali et al., 2004; Caldwell et al., 2014). Letrozole has been administered to female rats that were used as animal models of PCOS (Caldwell et al., 2014). In PCOS models, follicular atresia and abnormal follicular development have also been observed in polycystic ovaries (Choi et al., 2005). Aromatase, encoded by the Cyp19 gene, is a member of the cytochrome P450 family (Bulun et al., 2003) and is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgen to estrogens during steroidogenesis (Mills et al., 2014). In the ovary, estradiol is generated by the conversion of C19 androgens derived from theca cells under the influence of aromatase produced by granulosa cells (Lazaros et al., 2013). In addition to high testosterone concentrations, women with PCOS exhibit decreased expression of the estrogen receptor β in the granulosa cell layer of cystic follicles; this effect has also been observed in animals treated with letrozole compared to normal animals.